Okra Commercial and Research Data
Okra or Ladies Finger (Abelmoschus escualentus (L) Moench)
Edible part – In India, the immature tender and green pods are eaten mainly boiled in culinary preparations, as sliced and fried pieces. It is also slice dried in sun for its year-round consumption. Tender, green fruits are cooked in curry in curry and soup
Food Value - Okra fruits are rich in calcium (90mg/100g fresh weight) and provide valuable supplementary items in the tropical diet, which is basically starchy in nature lacking calcium and iron.
ClimateOkra prefers a long warm season. The plant is tender, sensitive to frost and cannot tolerate cold at any stage of growth. Low temperature true in the early spring results in poor germination of seed.
Best germination and crop growth takes place between 240C nad 300C. Seed does not germinate at 200C or below.
As such crop performs well under a long, warm and humid growing period. At higher temperatures beyond 400 – 420 C, flowers may desiccate and drop, causing yield losses due to poor fruit set.
It is grown on sandy to clay soils but due to its well-developed tap root system, relatively light, well –drained, rich soils are ideal. As such, loose, friable well-manured loam soils are desirable.
A pH of 6.0-6.8 is ideally suited. All soils need to be pulverized, moistened and enriched with organic matter before sowing.
Objectives of this Research Activity
To estimate cost–benefit ratio under wide spacing and under drip irrigation system during Summer season
To observe growth pattern at 10 – 15 days interval and single plant yielding ability
Agrorythm - Okra Cultivation Methodology
Operation Description Location Agrorythm cultivated Okra during summer season 2016 in leased farm at Somashettihalli village under drip irrigation. This farm is located 8 km away from Doddaballapur. The farmers around Doddaballapur grow mostly vegetables such as Cabbage, Cauliflower, Tomato, Beans, Gourds, etc. They also grow field crops such as maize. Tube wells are the main source of irrigation Water. Area Cultivated 810 sq.m Soil and Soil Analysis Well drained neutral Red Soils. The soil analysis report is give below:
Sample pH EC O.C % Av. P2O5 Kg / acre Av. K2O Kg / acre Available Micronutrients ( PPM ) Zn Cu Fe Mn 1 6.9 0.08 0.87 64 240 3.05 4.12 18.49 82.01 2 6.7 0.13 0.87 75 408 3.82 4.26 28.38 94.76 3 6.7 0.14 0.82 148 346 5.45 3.89 35.08 87.96 4 6.8 0.08 0.77 125 386 4.31 4.87 31.48 99.34 Land Preparation One deep ploughing followed harrowing with Tractor was done Drip System Drip irrigation system was laid for raising the Okra crop to economize the available water. Drip was run every alternate days Crop Variety Mono -002 (Open Pollinated Variety) Sowing Sowing was done on March 25, 2016. On this day the maximum temperature recorded was 32O C. The sowing was done at evening 3.00 PM when the day temperature was lowered
Operation Description Spacing Row to row : 90 cm
Plant to Plant: 15 cm
Seed Rate 1000g / 810 sq. m Fertilizer Application Crop Stage Application Sowing Time Biokit (Organic Fertilizer)
7 Days Fertilizer Mixture -19:19:19(NPK) though drip 20 Days DAP+SOP+UREA –Top Dressing 35 days Fertilizer Mixture -19:19:19(NPK) though drip
60 Days Fertilizer Mixture -19:19:19(NPK) though drip Weed Control Manual Weeding with hoes Harvesting First harvesting of green pods for market was done 75th day. Subsequently 5 pickings were done at 1 to 3 days depending on market conditions. The yield level was r Since the last picking was delayed due to marketing problems, the pods were over matured Though the expected yield in summer season normally is lower, we have harvested a good yield of 1324Kgs and generated a revenue of Rs.21551.00
Date Picking Yield(kg) 6/8/2016 I 55 6/11/2016 II 89 6/14/2016 III 76 6/16/2016 IV 55 6/17/2016 V 30 6/18/2016 VI 33 6/20/2016 VII 40 6/22/2016 VIII 35 6/27/2016 IX 49 7/15/2016 X 420
The average temperature at Doddabellapur during March – June period ranged between 30 and 35°C and the average relative humidity ranged from 60 to 65%. The physical -chemical properties of the soil at the Okra field site are given in Table 1. While nitrogen level is high (0.77 to 0.87%), the soil had a moderate level of phosphorus and a correspondingly high level of potassium.
Table1: Physical - chemical properties of the soil at the Okra grown site Sample pH EC O.C % Av. P2O5 Kg / acre Av. K2O Kg / acre Available Micronutrients ( PPM ) Zn Cu Fe Mn 1 6.9 0.08 0.87 64 240 3.05 4.12 18.49 82.01 2 6.7 0.13 0.87 75 408 3.82 4.26 28.38 94.76 3 6.7 0.14 0.82 148 346 5.45 3.89 35.08 87.96 4 6.8 0.08 0.77 125 386 4.31 4.87 31.48 99.34
In order to understand the vegetative growth pattern of Okra plant at different crop stages during summer season (March to June), 25 random plants were selected and data on plant height, number of leaves/plant, number of fruiting branches/plant, pods/plant and pod yield/plant was recorded. The plant to plant variation in the field of plant characters and yield is expected, since available nutrients and soil (pH, EC and soil moisture) conditions vary from plant to plant. Nitrogen generally influences plant height, number of leaves and branches /plant and Phosphorous and Potassium in combination with Nitrogen has impact on number of pods/plant .The results are presented as below:
In okra, the plant height is major trait that contributes to pod yield and is highly influenced by both macro environment (weather conditions) and microenvironment (soil conditions and fertilizer applications). The magnitude of variation (Coefficient of variation) among plants indicate that the okra plants in the field widely differ in their growth after 90 days of crop. The fertilizer application is stopped after 80 days. The inter plant interplant competition for soil nutrients could be probable reason for such wide differences among plants for growth
Number of Leaves
The below data reveals the wide variation among the plants in terms of the number of leaves per plant at different periods. The magnitude of variation measured by CV is high at 65 and 75 days crop stage.
Number of Branches /plant
The production of branches is initiated at 60 -75 days after planting. As evident from the data, the branches/vary from 1 to 5. The average branches/plant is around 2.0. The CV shows the magnitude of differences among the plants in terms of branches is more or less same a different crop stages.
Pods/plant and Pod Yield /plant
The picking in selected plants has been done once in two days. A total of 19 pickings have been done in over one & half month’s period. An average of 20 pods with average weight of 481 g have been harvested per plant. The CV values for both pod number and pod yield is more or less the same.
Trait Mean Minimum Maximum Coefficient of Variation Pods/Plant 24.2 18 40 19.91 Pod yield/Plant 481.32 345 800 21.91
The below graph displays similar trends for number pods /plant and pod yield /plant across the locations
The cost benefit ratio indicates that the cultivation of Okra in summer season under drip irrigation system at Doddaballapur appears to be successful. Except leaf minor infestation at early stage crop, the other okra insect pests and fungal and viral diseases are manageable during summer season.
Though limited data was recorded on plant growth characters and pod yield, the results show the plant growth tends to be slower until 50-55 days as compared to the growth after 55 days. In future, sensor and weather data will be collected and related to growth pattern and pod yield